Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Old pictures of Lo-nguong and Lieng-kong from Anglican missionaries

Recently, I came upon a series of articles and photographs related to Fuzhou left by missionaries in the Church Missionary Society (CMS) of the Anglican Church before the 1950s. I was surprised by the richness of the materials, and even more astonished when I found 100 year-old pictures about Lo-nguong (羅源,Luoyuan) and Lieng-kong (連江,Lianjiang) that I believe have not been seen by the natives for a long time. These pictures even preceded the one taken by Emily Susan Hartwell in the 1920-30s. Some of these pictures were taken by Anglican reverends, and some by deaconesses who had continued to contribute to the missionary work in Lo-nguong and its vicinity. Some of these materials are articles published in periodicals such as India's Women and China's Daughters, and Church Missionary Gleaner; some are digitized images from the missionaries such as Rev. William Charles White, the former Anglican Bishop of Honan who worked as a pastor in Lo-nguong for a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. There are still a rich pile of materials with the Cadbury Research Library at the University of Birmingham in England that await exploration. I have started to look at these materials and hope to dig out more exciting history about Lo-nguong.

No wonder, among all the protestant missions, CMS has the richest materials about Lo-nguong, because it is the dominant protestant church in Lo-nguong before the 1950s, which left important legacy and contributed to the modernization of the town. Churches, schools, leper asylum and hospitals were built by the Anglican missionaries in Lo-nguong. The 1998 Edition of the Luoyuan County Annals (罗源县志,1998年版) even contains a short biography of a female missionary, Florence Mary Cooper (顾玛琍) of the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society (CEZMS), who founded the Luoyuan Women's Hospital and helped save many lives in the town. This unusual record reflects the importance of CMS activities in the local history, because county annals in communist China seldom records foreigners, let alone missionaries, in the biography section. Sadly, the information about Florence Mary Cooper in English is still limited, and I do not even know when and where she died after she left China for England after the breakout of the Pacific War. I will talk about her in a separate article.

But to give you a flavor of the CMS materials, here are a few pictures found in the September Issue of the Church Missionary Gleaner in 1911:
(1) the West Gate of Lienkong in 1911; (2) a Tang dynasty pagoda (仙塔); (3) the missionary compound in Lienkong (according to my father, it looks like a Zhu Xi Temple in the town of Dangyang/Dang-iong); (4) the River Lien (敖江) near the South Gate of Lienkong.

圣公会Church Missionary Gleaner杂志1911年9月刊上刊登的4幅连江县的照片:
(1) 1911年时的连江西门和城墙;(2) 凤城镇仙塔街的唐代仙塔,现为福建省级文物保护单位;(3) 连江县圣公会传教士的大本营(据我父亲讲,看上去有点像丹阳镇的朱熹祠); (4) 连江南门外的敖江。

Monday, June 4, 2012

國會圖書館福州舊相片 Some Pictures of Old Fuzhou from Library of Congress

今旦有閒洽美國國會圖書館網站上使關鍵字"Foochow"去尋,討遘幾張有味其舊相片。 Did a quick search on Library of Congress' website using keyword "Foochow", found some interesting pictures.

View of the River Min at Dragon Festival (Ngô-nguŏk-cáik, 五月節), c1905. The picture was likely to be taken from Chŏng-săng (倉山) towards the north. Lots of Tanka (疍民/曲蹄) boats on the river then.

The island of Dṳ̆ng-ciŭ Dō̤ (中洲島) seen from the north (between ca. 1910 and ca. 1915). This shooting angle has probably been used by many photographers. But every time I see the old Dṳ̆ng-ciŭ Dō̤ from this angle, I'm deeply impressed by the delicacy of the architectures and depressed by the fact that the island has lost all of its original structure.

Ancestral tablets, c1905. The ancestral tablets (祖先牌位) are often placed in the main hall of a traditional residence or the living room of a modern apartment to commemorate the family's ancestors. Most tablets used by Foochow families today seem much simpler than these ones.

福州蜀隻陳姓(Dr. Ding)其教書先生透底未鉸過其指甲(1906年)。
According to the description, these are the finger nails which are never cut of Dr. Ding (probably 陳), a teacher in Foochow, China (c1906). Although I have known that the upper class women of older generations have long finger nails, but I have never seen such long nails.

夏詠美共福州女基督徒其相(1903年)。我好像洽George Ngu許塊看見過。
Photo of Emily Susan Hartwell, an American Congregational missionary in Foochow, with local Foochow women, c1903. I remember seeing this photo somewhere, probably from George Ngu's blog or Wikipedia.

Chinese musicians playing at a wedding feast in Foochow, c1905.

Sunday, April 4, 2010

Islam in Hokchew (Fuzhou)

Islam has never been a mainstream belief at any period in the history of Hokchew (Fuzhou), and it may be difficult to trace the Islamic history of Hokchew to the very beginning. One important record of the early Islamic history of Hokchew is the inscriptions on a 16th century stone stele in Hokchew Mosque (Fuzhou Mosque), claiming that the first mosque in Hokchew was built in 628 AD. This can be doubtful, since 628 AD is too early even for many Islamic countries in the Middle East, like Iran and Egypt, and it is widely believed that Islam was first introduced to China in 650. However, according to the Book of Min (閩書) by He Qiaoyuan (何喬遠) in 1620, Muhammad sent 4 disciples to China by sea between 618-626, two of them resided in Hokchew, and the other two in Guangzhou and Yangzhou respectively. The two disciples finally died in Hokchew and buried in Ling-sang (灵山). If this is true, Hokchew can be one of the Chinese cities that has the earliest contact with Islam. Despite the disputes, we still learn that Islam arrived at Hokchew in the 7th century. Since Hokchew was already an important port in early Tang Dynasty, there was a considerable foreign population in the city, mostly from the Middle East (Persians and Arabs), therefore, a mosque was indispensable for them.

However, the heyday of Fuzhou as a commercial port did not last very long, and her importance was gradually surpassed by the Southern Min city of Chôan-chiu (AKA Quanzhou, 泉州), known as Zayton (刺桐) by the Persians and Arabs. Chôan-chiu became the largest port in China in the Song Dynasty (10th-13th century), and even the largest in the world in the Yuan Dynasty (13th-14th century). Most Persians and Arabs chose to live in Chôan-chiu, rather than Hokchew. As the Muslim population dwindled, the early Hokchew Mosque gradually went decrepit. It was not until the Yuan Dynasty that Hokchew saw an increase of her Muslim population. So when the main prayer hall of Hokchew Mosque collapsed due to the lack of maintenance in the mid-14th century (Yuan Dynasty), the muslims, even some high ranked officials in Hokchew helped to rebuild the mosque. In early Ming Dynasty (14th century), it was again renovated, and the famous Sah Family in Hokchew also donated money for the renovation.

The classical Foochow saddleback gable in the Hokchew Mosque (Fuzhou Mosque)

The main prayer hall of the Hokchew Mosque

In 1541, after the Hokchew Mosque was destroyed in a fire, the local muslim rebuilt the mosque in the form of classical Foochow architecture style, which is today's Hokchew Mosque. If anything unique can be found in the Hokchew Mosque, it must be that the Hokchew Mosque is the only mosque in the world in classical Foochow style. Here you can find Foochow saddleback gables in a mosque! The pic on the left shows what the Foochow saddleback gables in the mosque look like. Certainly, you can also find Arabic inscriptions and Chinese stone stele accompanying the oriental main prayer hall. The only thing that reminds a non-native of the religious function of the building is its facade with a dome (in the pic), but this was added to the original mosque only in 1989, and in my opinion, this recent modification was such a bad idea that harmed the integrality of the building.

Added to the original building only in 1989, the dome of Hokchew Mosque doesn't look in tune

Chinese inscription in the Hokchew Mosque

Arabic inscription in the Hokchew Mosque

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Hokchew Islam was again heavily weakened due to the shrink of Hokchew muslim population. In hundreds of years, the Hokchew Mosque was maintained by the muslim officers in Hokchew from other Chinese provinces appointed by the emperor. We only saw significant muslim immigration to Fujian after the installation of the communism in 1949, when some muslims from north China came to Hokchew following its occupation by the communist army, whose solders were mostly Northern Chinese. Since the 1980s, the booming economy of Fujian attracted many muslims from northwestern China to Hokchew. These new immigrants "revived" the Hokchew Mosque. Currently, the Ulama of Hokchew Mosque is a Hui (回族), and the Hui people and Uyghur people constitute the majority of the worshippers here.

A 15th century stone stele in the Hokchew Mosque, which conveyed the Yongle Emperor's decree to protect Islam

However, following the increase of Muslim population in Hokchew is the uneasy relation between the local Foochow Han Chinese and the muslims, particularly the Uyghur, just like what is going on in many other Chinese cities. I'd like to go a little deeper into the issue. Many of the Uyghur people in Hokchew are from Southern Xinjiang, the poorest region in Xinjiang and one of the poorest in China. The arid land and bad economy drove many Uyghur there to the eastern coast of China to look for jobs and better lives. But some of them did this in an illegal way: they brought many Uyghur kids from southern Xinjiang to eastern China by promising their families a better income, even by kidnapping. But it turned out that these criminals used the little kids, mostly about 10 years old, as thieves to steal for them. The money the kids stole finally went to the adult criminals' pockets and the kids were only provided their basic needs. There are also some notorious Uyghur peddlers who try to sell by force, threatening the customers to buy their things (usually some good-looking cakes), otherwise the customers may get beaten up. Such problems rapidly damaged Uyghur's reputation and brought tension between them and the local people. Unfortunately, many Han Chinese do not know where the Uyghur people are from. They simply take them as the typical example of all Uyghur, and consequently consider most Uyghur as thieves or evil peddlers. This is so sad.

Today, to most Hokchew residents, Islam is such a strange and somewhat mysterious religion, even though the Hokchew Mosque locates on one of the busiest street at the heart of the city. The mosque itself is listed as a relic protected by the city of Hokchew and open to the public, but it seems that very few Foochowese have ever set foot in it. When I and my friends visited the mosque, I met a clergy who kind of vigilantly asked: "What are you doing here?" When I answered :"I'm a tourist." He stopped asking questions any more. When I took photos in front of a small door, I didn't notice that I was in the way of a person who murmured something to me seemingly in Uyghur, obviously, he was grumbling. I don't know if we are also strange to them as they are strange to most Foochowese.

Wednesday, March 31, 2010



Monday, March 29, 2010


2009年时,我在南加州大学网上图书馆(USC Libraries)里的国际传教士档案里(Internet Mission Photography Archive)偶然发现了这张照片,原址在这里 ,标题为Laiyuan, Fujian, China, ca. 1930,显然,单从标题上看,大概谁也不会想到这个Laiyuan竟是Luoyuan之误。但当我第一次见到它时,瞬间便有一种难以言表的亲切感,仿佛似曾相识,几乎在1秒钟内,我立刻就怀疑起图书馆人员在录入资料时是否有误。在阅读了照片的描述和资料来源之后,我的怀疑愈深。

这幅照片实体的收藏者是耶鲁大学神学院图书馆(Yale Divinity School Library),是艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士收藏文献(Emily Susan Hartwell Papers)中的一部分,时间在1920-1937之间,照片的描述为:The town is completely enclosed by a fortified stone wall. The ramparts and gatehouses of the wall are visible. Rice paddies dominate the foreground. Mountains loom over the background. This photo is from the papers of Emily Susan Hartwell, an American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions missionary stationed in Foochow, Fukien from 1884.大意是:“该城完全由坚固的石墙环绕。墙体和城门楼清晰可见。前景由稻田占据。而背景则浮现重重山峦。该照片来自于由1884年起便驻于福建福州的美国公理会差会的艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔的文献。”那么,这个艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔究竟是谁,又凭什么鉴定这照片的拍摄地点和时间呢?

实际上,这位艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士是一位美国女性,她是在福州传教的美国基督教新教传教士夏察理(Charles Hartwell)的女儿,也在福州从事传教工作。这位夏察理先生还是位语言学者,就像那个年代在榕的许多外国人一样,他能说一口流利的福州话,不仅如此,他还参与了将《圣经新约》和三字经翻译为福州语(平话字)的工作以及第二版《福州话-英语词典》的编撰。1905年,夏察理逝世后,他的女儿艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔留在福州继续传教工作。艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士应该有一个汉文名字,但我至今没有找到。夏女士在榕期间,到过许多地方,也拍摄了大量照片,这些照片如今就以艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士收藏文献的名字收录在耶鲁神学院图书馆中。








福建省档案馆资料中,这次“仁慈堂事件”的经过据说是这样的,福州西门外一个名叫陈亘的女性早就听当地坟场的墓工说育婴堂挑夫常常会挑婴尸上马鞍山来埋,而附近的乡民见到挑夫就避让,于是陈亘就在1927年1月14日清晨带领数十人在西门外荷花亭附近路上拦截仁慈堂的挑夫盘问,当场从挑夫袋中发现11具婴儿尸体,并逼问该挑夫说出其家庭三代替仁慈堂挑婴尸埋葬。随后,这些人便领着婴尸到政府部门控诉,随后就有大批群众冲击仁慈堂。据说传教士还用枪和玻璃抵抗,但最终没能挡住,而从后门逃走,到底传教士有没有用枪这事死无对证,反正冲击教堂的人没有一个伤亡的。攻入育婴堂后,群众又发现了14具婴儿尸体和几十个据说待遇恶劣的婴孩。当日就在福州城就爆发了“打倒帝国主义,打倒基督教、天主教假慈善事业、惩办惨案杀婴孩凶手及赔偿生命损失”的大型运动,第二天,福州就组织了各界代表联席会并向全 国通电案情,紧接着国民党福州市党部和闽侯县党部便联合发布《福州仁慈堂惨案经过情形》文告。随后,国民党部组织群众没收了仁慈堂,并冲击了福州所有的基督教(新教)和天主教机构,还将澳尾巷天主教堂捣毁。而这一事件波及的不仅仅是福州,厦门也组织了“厦门各界反抗福州天主教惨杀华童委员会”,最终导致了从福州到厦门许多基督教会神职人员的离境。仁慈堂被没收后,改为福州贫民教养院。再后面的事,不妨也说一说,就是在仁慈堂事件打击了福州各个基督教会声誉之后,是国民政府从福州的基督教会手中夺取各大学、中学教育资源的“收回教育权运动”,而“仁慈堂事件”就像是个前奏曲,再后来,原仁慈堂好像又被还给天主教会,而由德国的天主教会建成了德撒医院。然而,这件事还有一个更遥远的尾声,这次与国民党无关,而是共产党在1951年福州的镇反运动中,组织群众在福州西北郊马鞍山挖出据说是“数以万计”的婴孩骷髅,称其“万童坑”,并以此作为基督教会的罪行,将所有“虐杀中国婴孩”的外国传教士全部驱逐出境。



从史料记载来看,当时仁慈堂中儿童的生活条件大概真的很差,福建省档案馆根据群众口述记载的情况是:仁慈堂中抚养几十个存活婴儿的只有一个神经失常的女傻子和一个哑巴(实际上应该还有神父,否则按该文所述孩子们会念经,这两个人显然没能力教),孩子的年龄在1、2岁到7、8岁间,在冬天仅穿薄衫一件,并排睡觉,合盖短薄棉被一床,头脚露在外,婴儿仅食用一罐糊糊,由女傻子以竹片给婴儿们抹食。年纪大的孩子整日足不出户在仁慈堂中念经,据说没有生活经验,连猪羊都不认识。不过,这些记录的最大缺憾就来自于地方档案馆中这种在特定政治历史环境下的记录,往往是选择性的,只捡取那些能用于控诉“帝国主义或伪善教会的罪行”的部分,而缺乏一个全面的记录,这让想了解事件全部的人感到为难。从以上描述来看,如果属实的话,我们大概可以知道:(1)婴儿的生活条件相当艰苦,缺乏营养;(2)保育者素质恶劣;(3)孩童受到有限教育,可能不是文盲(会念经),但缺乏生活知识和技能。但当时儿童的死亡率原本就很高,而且据说许多被遗弃的婴孩被送入育婴堂中时已经奄奄一息,更是降低了存活率,这样看,也可能仁慈堂内的婴儿死亡率并非高于当时的平均水平;另外一点便是,和以美国和英国传教士主导的基督新教教会不同,福州的天主教会长期是以西班牙籍神职人员为主,而当时内患重重的西班牙是西欧最穷的国家之一,天主教会的财力难以匹敌新教,可以想见起育婴堂的条件不会好到哪里去。据说当时仁慈堂内有法国神父,但我一直没有找到相关的详细资料,颇为遗憾,不过即使有一两个法国教士活动,也难以改变福州天主教会由西班牙神职人员主导的局面。至于究竟有没有虐婴,我想可能已是难以澄清的事情了,从地方档案馆当方面的描述来看,也许不能排除教会人员渎职、导致婴儿保育条件恶劣、死亡率高的情况发生。期冀日后能找到当时教会内人员对此的记述,以了解事情的另一面,不知道当时的福州主教宋金鈴(Francisco Aguirre)是否留下什么文字的回忆呢?至于民间流传的仁慈堂拿婴儿炼丹、做科学实验的谣传,因为过份不实,连国共两党的政宣部门也不敢拿来使用。熟悉基督教的人应该知道保守的教会(比如当时在福州活动的天主教会道明会)是大力反对堕胎的,而在中世纪连解剖尸体的科学家都要被天主教宗教裁判所判火刑处决的,这种谣言中荒诞不经的故事,只不过是民间对教会缺乏了解的一种反应罢了。




Tuesday, March 16, 2010

福州忠懿閩王祠匆匆行 A Visit to the King of Min Memorial Temple


(左圖:閩王祠前庭後墻) 如今許多人連閩王祠也不認識,多少有些數典忘祖的味道,但就像我常說的那樣:這是一段在近幾十年被遺忘的歷史,即便這就是我們族群自己的歷史。盡管閩人習慣將先祖入閩的歷史追溯到晉代的八姓入閩,但在福建歷史上最輝煌的一次入閩移民潮還是唐末五代時的“十八姓從王”。9世紀末黃巢亂唐之後,中原陷入又一波大規模戰亂,當時光壽兩州(如今的河南固始和安徽壽縣)的兵士在王緒的帶領下,南下轉戰福建,但是由于王緒暴虐,士兵們怨聲載道,秘密擁護軍中品行良好的王潮、王審知兄弟發動兵變,囚禁王緒。王氏兄弟于是就率領兵士民人平定了福建各派勢力,統一全閩,入主閩都福州。這次跟隨王潮、王審知兄弟南下入閩的光壽兵民據說共有十八姓,這便是十八姓從王。王潮去世後,王審知繼而主政,並在909年被後梁冊封為閩王,開創了五代十國中的閩國,這也開啟了真正意義上閩族群的歷史。這個忠懿閩王祠,就是祭祀王審知的祠廟。(右圖:唐代“恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑”)


(左圖:閩王祠正殿) 雖然掛著“閩王祠”這么威風的頭銜,但這座祠堂其實并不大,占地面積為1840平方米,福建比它更大的家族祠堂應當不在少數。閩王祠的正立面,也就是大門,采用的是福州本土祠堂常用的一種大門形式,門墻中間高、兩側低,上為兩端挑起的燕尾脊顶,三個門洞,正門大、兩儀門小,大門上方有“奉旨祀典”碑和“忠懿閩王祠”額,左右儀門上方分別書“报功”、“崇德”。進門就是前庭,整座閩王祠里最古老的物件就在前庭中,就是碑亭里的那座906年的黑色唐代“恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑”,要知道這祠堂現建筑也不過400來年歷史(1601年),而這方碑比這厝要早了將近700年。從文物價值上可以說這碑比祠貴,閩王祠中的省級文物保護單位不是這祠,而是這碑。(右圖:閩王祠內的王審知像)

(左圖:閩王祠內陳列的閩國宮殿遺物) 前庭那“紹越開疆”後墻後面就是閩王祠的主體——後庭,像所有的福州古典建筑一樣,後庭是由兩側的廂房和正面的正殿圍出一個天井的空間。今天的閩王祠,似乎並沒有祠堂的功能,而純粹是作為一座小型博物館開放的。正殿里除了正中那座王審知雕塑,其余的空間擺放的是各色有意思的文物,比如五代閩王宮建筑遺物(多是瓦當、地磚之類)、王審知妻子尚賢夫人墓志銘和“拜劍臺古跡”碑。不過在描述文物的“閩王宮建筑遺物”牌子上面,我發現了很搞笑的一個細節:吳越國的“國”字竟然被加上了引號,成了:閩亡後,吳越“國”將其拆除。在中國歷史上確確實實存在過的十國之一的吳越國竟然成了吳越“國”,天哪,不知是否是館方草木皆兵、敏感過度了。另外一個有意思的地方是,我在閩王祠并沒有發現福州式古典建筑典型的馬鞍形封火墻,按理說明代的建筑也該有馬頭墻吧,如果這是當時的工匠們考慮到閩王的中原出身以及其年代早于馬頭墻出現的年代,那我倒真的很佩服他們。


The King of Min
Memorial Temple locates at Qingcheng Road, a less busy road in urban Fuzhou. It was built for commemorate Wang Shenzhi (in Foochow: Wong Sing-di), the founder and the first king of the Kingdom of Min in the 10th century. Wang Shenzhi and his brother Wang Chao (in Foochow: Wong Dieu) were the leaders of immigrants (soldiers and civilians) from Gwangchow (光州, currently Gushi 固始 in Henan Province) and Shouzhou (寿州, currently Shouxian 寿县 in Anhui Province) in Central China to Fujian, to flee the exhausting wars in Central China. The Wang brothers finally united and took full control of the entire land of Min (Fujian) in 893 AD. After Wang Chao's death, Wang Shenzhi took over power and was conferred the King of Min by the emperor of Later Liang in 909. Wang Shenzhi was known as an excellent leader who developed Fujian from a poor frontier region into a highly civilized kingdom, and remembered by many ethnic Min as the Founding King of Min (開閩王).

Although Wang Shenzhi is one of the most important figures in the history of Fujian, his memorial temple is not large – only 1840 square meters (~19800 square ft), even smaller than many family temples found in this area. The temple was built on the site of the former house of Wang Shenzhi, but its current structure was rebuilt in 1601 (Ming Dynasty). Its façade (front gate) is of one typical Foochow style (Eastern Min style), which is higher in the middle and lower at both sides. Behind the façade is the front courtyard, where stands the most precious relic in this temple: the Bestowed Stele for the Merits of King Langya (恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑
), given by the last Emperor of Tang Dynasty to Wang Shenzhi in 906. The inner court behind the 紹越開疆 wall has a typical traditional Foochow style layout. The main hall behind the atrium is now an exhibition room. Besides the statue of Wang Shenzhi in the middle, you can find fragments from the archaeological site of the 10th century Min Palace and the epitaph of Wang Shenzhi’s wife. The temple is so small that you can finish it less than half an hour, but in my opinion, it is still a must-visit place in Fuzhou for those who seriously want to know the history of Fujian and ethnic Min. In some way, it is a cultural shrine to the Min people, even though many Min today have almost forgot the place.