Sunday, April 4, 2010

Islam in Hokchew (Fuzhou)

Islam has never been a mainstream belief at any period in the history of Hokchew (Fuzhou), and it may be difficult to trace the Islamic history of Hokchew to the very beginning. One important record of the early Islamic history of Hokchew is the inscriptions on a 16th century stone stele in Hokchew Mosque (Fuzhou Mosque), claiming that the first mosque in Hokchew was built in 628 AD. This can be doubtful, since 628 AD is too early even for many Islamic countries in the Middle East, like Iran and Egypt, and it is widely believed that Islam was first introduced to China in 650. However, according to the Book of Min (閩書) by He Qiaoyuan (何喬遠) in 1620, Muhammad sent 4 disciples to China by sea between 618-626, two of them resided in Hokchew, and the other two in Guangzhou and Yangzhou respectively. The two disciples finally died in Hokchew and buried in Ling-sang (灵山). If this is true, Hokchew can be one of the Chinese cities that has the earliest contact with Islam. Despite the disputes, we still learn that Islam arrived at Hokchew in the 7th century. Since Hokchew was already an important port in early Tang Dynasty, there was a considerable foreign population in the city, mostly from the Middle East (Persians and Arabs), therefore, a mosque was indispensable for them.

However, the heyday of Fuzhou as a commercial port did not last very long, and her importance was gradually surpassed by the Southern Min city of Chôan-chiu (AKA Quanzhou, 泉州), known as Zayton (刺桐) by the Persians and Arabs. Chôan-chiu became the largest port in China in the Song Dynasty (10th-13th century), and even the largest in the world in the Yuan Dynasty (13th-14th century). Most Persians and Arabs chose to live in Chôan-chiu, rather than Hokchew. As the Muslim population dwindled, the early Hokchew Mosque gradually went decrepit. It was not until the Yuan Dynasty that Hokchew saw an increase of her Muslim population. So when the main prayer hall of Hokchew Mosque collapsed due to the lack of maintenance in the mid-14th century (Yuan Dynasty), the muslims, even some high ranked officials in Hokchew helped to rebuild the mosque. In early Ming Dynasty (14th century), it was again renovated, and the famous Sah Family in Hokchew also donated money for the renovation.

The classical Foochow saddleback gable in the Hokchew Mosque (Fuzhou Mosque)

The main prayer hall of the Hokchew Mosque

In 1541, after the Hokchew Mosque was destroyed in a fire, the local muslim rebuilt the mosque in the form of classical Foochow architecture style, which is today's Hokchew Mosque. If anything unique can be found in the Hokchew Mosque, it must be that the Hokchew Mosque is the only mosque in the world in classical Foochow style. Here you can find Foochow saddleback gables in a mosque! The pic on the left shows what the Foochow saddleback gables in the mosque look like. Certainly, you can also find Arabic inscriptions and Chinese stone stele accompanying the oriental main prayer hall. The only thing that reminds a non-native of the religious function of the building is its facade with a dome (in the pic), but this was added to the original mosque only in 1989, and in my opinion, this recent modification was such a bad idea that harmed the integrality of the building.

Added to the original building only in 1989, the dome of Hokchew Mosque doesn't look in tune

Chinese inscription in the Hokchew Mosque

Arabic inscription in the Hokchew Mosque

During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), Hokchew Islam was again heavily weakened due to the shrink of Hokchew muslim population. In hundreds of years, the Hokchew Mosque was maintained by the muslim officers in Hokchew from other Chinese provinces appointed by the emperor. We only saw significant muslim immigration to Fujian after the installation of the communism in 1949, when some muslims from north China came to Hokchew following its occupation by the communist army, whose solders were mostly Northern Chinese. Since the 1980s, the booming economy of Fujian attracted many muslims from northwestern China to Hokchew. These new immigrants "revived" the Hokchew Mosque. Currently, the Ulama of Hokchew Mosque is a Hui (回族), and the Hui people and Uyghur people constitute the majority of the worshippers here.

A 15th century stone stele in the Hokchew Mosque, which conveyed the Yongle Emperor's decree to protect Islam

However, following the increase of Muslim population in Hokchew is the uneasy relation between the local Foochow Han Chinese and the muslims, particularly the Uyghur, just like what is going on in many other Chinese cities. I'd like to go a little deeper into the issue. Many of the Uyghur people in Hokchew are from Southern Xinjiang, the poorest region in Xinjiang and one of the poorest in China. The arid land and bad economy drove many Uyghur there to the eastern coast of China to look for jobs and better lives. But some of them did this in an illegal way: they brought many Uyghur kids from southern Xinjiang to eastern China by promising their families a better income, even by kidnapping. But it turned out that these criminals used the little kids, mostly about 10 years old, as thieves to steal for them. The money the kids stole finally went to the adult criminals' pockets and the kids were only provided their basic needs. There are also some notorious Uyghur peddlers who try to sell by force, threatening the customers to buy their things (usually some good-looking cakes), otherwise the customers may get beaten up. Such problems rapidly damaged Uyghur's reputation and brought tension between them and the local people. Unfortunately, many Han Chinese do not know where the Uyghur people are from. They simply take them as the typical example of all Uyghur, and consequently consider most Uyghur as thieves or evil peddlers. This is so sad.

Today, to most Hokchew residents, Islam is such a strange and somewhat mysterious religion, even though the Hokchew Mosque locates on one of the busiest street at the heart of the city. The mosque itself is listed as a relic protected by the city of Hokchew and open to the public, but it seems that very few Foochowese have ever set foot in it. When I and my friends visited the mosque, I met a clergy who kind of vigilantly asked: "What are you doing here?" When I answered :"I'm a tourist." He stopped asking questions any more. When I took photos in front of a small door, I didn't notice that I was in the way of a person who murmured something to me seemingly in Uyghur, obviously, he was grumbling. I don't know if we are also strange to them as they are strange to most Foochowese.

Wednesday, March 31, 2010



Monday, March 29, 2010


2009年时,我在南加州大学网上图书馆(USC Libraries)里的国际传教士档案里(Internet Mission Photography Archive)偶然发现了这张照片,原址在这里 ,标题为Laiyuan, Fujian, China, ca. 1930,显然,单从标题上看,大概谁也不会想到这个Laiyuan竟是Luoyuan之误。但当我第一次见到它时,瞬间便有一种难以言表的亲切感,仿佛似曾相识,几乎在1秒钟内,我立刻就怀疑起图书馆人员在录入资料时是否有误。在阅读了照片的描述和资料来源之后,我的怀疑愈深。

这幅照片实体的收藏者是耶鲁大学神学院图书馆(Yale Divinity School Library),是艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士收藏文献(Emily Susan Hartwell Papers)中的一部分,时间在1920-1937之间,照片的描述为:The town is completely enclosed by a fortified stone wall. The ramparts and gatehouses of the wall are visible. Rice paddies dominate the foreground. Mountains loom over the background. This photo is from the papers of Emily Susan Hartwell, an American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions missionary stationed in Foochow, Fukien from 1884.大意是:“该城完全由坚固的石墙环绕。墙体和城门楼清晰可见。前景由稻田占据。而背景则浮现重重山峦。该照片来自于由1884年起便驻于福建福州的美国公理会差会的艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔的文献。”那么,这个艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔究竟是谁,又凭什么鉴定这照片的拍摄地点和时间呢?

实际上,这位艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士是一位美国女性,她是在福州传教的美国基督教新教传教士夏察理(Charles Hartwell)的女儿,也在福州从事传教工作。这位夏察理先生还是位语言学者,就像那个年代在榕的许多外国人一样,他能说一口流利的福州话,不仅如此,他还参与了将《圣经新约》和三字经翻译为福州语(平话字)的工作以及第二版《福州话-英语词典》的编撰。1905年,夏察理逝世后,他的女儿艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔留在福州继续传教工作。艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士应该有一个汉文名字,但我至今没有找到。夏女士在榕期间,到过许多地方,也拍摄了大量照片,这些照片如今就以艾米莉·苏珊·夏威尔女士收藏文献的名字收录在耶鲁神学院图书馆中。








福建省档案馆资料中,这次“仁慈堂事件”的经过据说是这样的,福州西门外一个名叫陈亘的女性早就听当地坟场的墓工说育婴堂挑夫常常会挑婴尸上马鞍山来埋,而附近的乡民见到挑夫就避让,于是陈亘就在1927年1月14日清晨带领数十人在西门外荷花亭附近路上拦截仁慈堂的挑夫盘问,当场从挑夫袋中发现11具婴儿尸体,并逼问该挑夫说出其家庭三代替仁慈堂挑婴尸埋葬。随后,这些人便领着婴尸到政府部门控诉,随后就有大批群众冲击仁慈堂。据说传教士还用枪和玻璃抵抗,但最终没能挡住,而从后门逃走,到底传教士有没有用枪这事死无对证,反正冲击教堂的人没有一个伤亡的。攻入育婴堂后,群众又发现了14具婴儿尸体和几十个据说待遇恶劣的婴孩。当日就在福州城就爆发了“打倒帝国主义,打倒基督教、天主教假慈善事业、惩办惨案杀婴孩凶手及赔偿生命损失”的大型运动,第二天,福州就组织了各界代表联席会并向全 国通电案情,紧接着国民党福州市党部和闽侯县党部便联合发布《福州仁慈堂惨案经过情形》文告。随后,国民党部组织群众没收了仁慈堂,并冲击了福州所有的基督教(新教)和天主教机构,还将澳尾巷天主教堂捣毁。而这一事件波及的不仅仅是福州,厦门也组织了“厦门各界反抗福州天主教惨杀华童委员会”,最终导致了从福州到厦门许多基督教会神职人员的离境。仁慈堂被没收后,改为福州贫民教养院。再后面的事,不妨也说一说,就是在仁慈堂事件打击了福州各个基督教会声誉之后,是国民政府从福州的基督教会手中夺取各大学、中学教育资源的“收回教育权运动”,而“仁慈堂事件”就像是个前奏曲,再后来,原仁慈堂好像又被还给天主教会,而由德国的天主教会建成了德撒医院。然而,这件事还有一个更遥远的尾声,这次与国民党无关,而是共产党在1951年福州的镇反运动中,组织群众在福州西北郊马鞍山挖出据说是“数以万计”的婴孩骷髅,称其“万童坑”,并以此作为基督教会的罪行,将所有“虐杀中国婴孩”的外国传教士全部驱逐出境。



从史料记载来看,当时仁慈堂中儿童的生活条件大概真的很差,福建省档案馆根据群众口述记载的情况是:仁慈堂中抚养几十个存活婴儿的只有一个神经失常的女傻子和一个哑巴(实际上应该还有神父,否则按该文所述孩子们会念经,这两个人显然没能力教),孩子的年龄在1、2岁到7、8岁间,在冬天仅穿薄衫一件,并排睡觉,合盖短薄棉被一床,头脚露在外,婴儿仅食用一罐糊糊,由女傻子以竹片给婴儿们抹食。年纪大的孩子整日足不出户在仁慈堂中念经,据说没有生活经验,连猪羊都不认识。不过,这些记录的最大缺憾就来自于地方档案馆中这种在特定政治历史环境下的记录,往往是选择性的,只捡取那些能用于控诉“帝国主义或伪善教会的罪行”的部分,而缺乏一个全面的记录,这让想了解事件全部的人感到为难。从以上描述来看,如果属实的话,我们大概可以知道:(1)婴儿的生活条件相当艰苦,缺乏营养;(2)保育者素质恶劣;(3)孩童受到有限教育,可能不是文盲(会念经),但缺乏生活知识和技能。但当时儿童的死亡率原本就很高,而且据说许多被遗弃的婴孩被送入育婴堂中时已经奄奄一息,更是降低了存活率,这样看,也可能仁慈堂内的婴儿死亡率并非高于当时的平均水平;另外一点便是,和以美国和英国传教士主导的基督新教教会不同,福州的天主教会长期是以西班牙籍神职人员为主,而当时内患重重的西班牙是西欧最穷的国家之一,天主教会的财力难以匹敌新教,可以想见起育婴堂的条件不会好到哪里去。据说当时仁慈堂内有法国神父,但我一直没有找到相关的详细资料,颇为遗憾,不过即使有一两个法国教士活动,也难以改变福州天主教会由西班牙神职人员主导的局面。至于究竟有没有虐婴,我想可能已是难以澄清的事情了,从地方档案馆当方面的描述来看,也许不能排除教会人员渎职、导致婴儿保育条件恶劣、死亡率高的情况发生。期冀日后能找到当时教会内人员对此的记述,以了解事情的另一面,不知道当时的福州主教宋金鈴(Francisco Aguirre)是否留下什么文字的回忆呢?至于民间流传的仁慈堂拿婴儿炼丹、做科学实验的谣传,因为过份不实,连国共两党的政宣部门也不敢拿来使用。熟悉基督教的人应该知道保守的教会(比如当时在福州活动的天主教会道明会)是大力反对堕胎的,而在中世纪连解剖尸体的科学家都要被天主教宗教裁判所判火刑处决的,这种谣言中荒诞不经的故事,只不过是民间对教会缺乏了解的一种反应罢了。




Tuesday, March 16, 2010

福州忠懿閩王祠匆匆行 A Visit to the King of Min Memorial Temple


(左圖:閩王祠前庭後墻) 如今許多人連閩王祠也不認識,多少有些數典忘祖的味道,但就像我常說的那樣:這是一段在近幾十年被遺忘的歷史,即便這就是我們族群自己的歷史。盡管閩人習慣將先祖入閩的歷史追溯到晉代的八姓入閩,但在福建歷史上最輝煌的一次入閩移民潮還是唐末五代時的“十八姓從王”。9世紀末黃巢亂唐之後,中原陷入又一波大規模戰亂,當時光壽兩州(如今的河南固始和安徽壽縣)的兵士在王緒的帶領下,南下轉戰福建,但是由于王緒暴虐,士兵們怨聲載道,秘密擁護軍中品行良好的王潮、王審知兄弟發動兵變,囚禁王緒。王氏兄弟于是就率領兵士民人平定了福建各派勢力,統一全閩,入主閩都福州。這次跟隨王潮、王審知兄弟南下入閩的光壽兵民據說共有十八姓,這便是十八姓從王。王潮去世後,王審知繼而主政,並在909年被後梁冊封為閩王,開創了五代十國中的閩國,這也開啟了真正意義上閩族群的歷史。這個忠懿閩王祠,就是祭祀王審知的祠廟。(右圖:唐代“恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑”)


(左圖:閩王祠正殿) 雖然掛著“閩王祠”這么威風的頭銜,但這座祠堂其實并不大,占地面積為1840平方米,福建比它更大的家族祠堂應當不在少數。閩王祠的正立面,也就是大門,采用的是福州本土祠堂常用的一種大門形式,門墻中間高、兩側低,上為兩端挑起的燕尾脊顶,三個門洞,正門大、兩儀門小,大門上方有“奉旨祀典”碑和“忠懿閩王祠”額,左右儀門上方分別書“报功”、“崇德”。進門就是前庭,整座閩王祠里最古老的物件就在前庭中,就是碑亭里的那座906年的黑色唐代“恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑”,要知道這祠堂現建筑也不過400來年歷史(1601年),而這方碑比這厝要早了將近700年。從文物價值上可以說這碑比祠貴,閩王祠中的省級文物保護單位不是這祠,而是這碑。(右圖:閩王祠內的王審知像)

(左圖:閩王祠內陳列的閩國宮殿遺物) 前庭那“紹越開疆”後墻後面就是閩王祠的主體——後庭,像所有的福州古典建筑一樣,後庭是由兩側的廂房和正面的正殿圍出一個天井的空間。今天的閩王祠,似乎並沒有祠堂的功能,而純粹是作為一座小型博物館開放的。正殿里除了正中那座王審知雕塑,其余的空間擺放的是各色有意思的文物,比如五代閩王宮建筑遺物(多是瓦當、地磚之類)、王審知妻子尚賢夫人墓志銘和“拜劍臺古跡”碑。不過在描述文物的“閩王宮建筑遺物”牌子上面,我發現了很搞笑的一個細節:吳越國的“國”字竟然被加上了引號,成了:閩亡後,吳越“國”將其拆除。在中國歷史上確確實實存在過的十國之一的吳越國竟然成了吳越“國”,天哪,不知是否是館方草木皆兵、敏感過度了。另外一個有意思的地方是,我在閩王祠并沒有發現福州式古典建筑典型的馬鞍形封火墻,按理說明代的建筑也該有馬頭墻吧,如果這是當時的工匠們考慮到閩王的中原出身以及其年代早于馬頭墻出現的年代,那我倒真的很佩服他們。


The King of Min
Memorial Temple locates at Qingcheng Road, a less busy road in urban Fuzhou. It was built for commemorate Wang Shenzhi (in Foochow: Wong Sing-di), the founder and the first king of the Kingdom of Min in the 10th century. Wang Shenzhi and his brother Wang Chao (in Foochow: Wong Dieu) were the leaders of immigrants (soldiers and civilians) from Gwangchow (光州, currently Gushi 固始 in Henan Province) and Shouzhou (寿州, currently Shouxian 寿县 in Anhui Province) in Central China to Fujian, to flee the exhausting wars in Central China. The Wang brothers finally united and took full control of the entire land of Min (Fujian) in 893 AD. After Wang Chao's death, Wang Shenzhi took over power and was conferred the King of Min by the emperor of Later Liang in 909. Wang Shenzhi was known as an excellent leader who developed Fujian from a poor frontier region into a highly civilized kingdom, and remembered by many ethnic Min as the Founding King of Min (開閩王).

Although Wang Shenzhi is one of the most important figures in the history of Fujian, his memorial temple is not large – only 1840 square meters (~19800 square ft), even smaller than many family temples found in this area. The temple was built on the site of the former house of Wang Shenzhi, but its current structure was rebuilt in 1601 (Ming Dynasty). Its façade (front gate) is of one typical Foochow style (Eastern Min style), which is higher in the middle and lower at both sides. Behind the façade is the front courtyard, where stands the most precious relic in this temple: the Bestowed Stele for the Merits of King Langya (恩賜瑯琊郡王德政碑
), given by the last Emperor of Tang Dynasty to Wang Shenzhi in 906. The inner court behind the 紹越開疆 wall has a typical traditional Foochow style layout. The main hall behind the atrium is now an exhibition room. Besides the statue of Wang Shenzhi in the middle, you can find fragments from the archaeological site of the 10th century Min Palace and the epitaph of Wang Shenzhi’s wife. The temple is so small that you can finish it less than half an hour, but in my opinion, it is still a must-visit place in Fuzhou for those who seriously want to know the history of Fujian and ethnic Min. In some way, it is a cultural shrine to the Min people, even though many Min today have almost forgot the place.








(左图:回收教育权运动后担任福建协大校长的林景润)但这仅仅是个开端,一个小小育婴堂里不明不白的“虐婴事件”显然不像革命者们最为关注的事情,倒更像是为今后国民政府在更大范围内通过群众革命运动的方式控制社会资源、尤其是基督教会手中掌握的教育资源做的铺垫。1927年1月北伐军进入福州后,就成立了“福建教育改造委员会”,准备回收教育权。在仁慈堂事件打击了福州各基督教会的社会声誉之后,国民党就不失时机的推动了回收教育权运动。先是3月24日福建协和大学(教会大学)的教员陈锡襄发起了“福州各界反文化侵略收回教育权大同盟”,在仓山麦园顶召开群众大会,指责教会办学为“文化侵略”,要求取缔教会学校。接着,福州的大规模学潮随之爆发,大批学生上街游行,要求回收教育权。这一运动得到了国民党和共产党的指导和支持,“福州各界反文化侵略收回教育权大同盟”的总部就设在福州的国民党福建省党部内。要知道当时福州大部分最好的中学(英华书院、格致书院、圣马可书院、文山女中、陶淑女中、华南女中)以及大学(福建协和大学、华南女子大学)都属于教会创办。由于这次运动声势浩大,各个教会学校的外籍校长都被迫离职,大部分教会中学都被改为私立,福建协大也于几年后改为私立。(右图:运动前华南女大的美籍校长卢爱德)华南女大的学生是该次运动中最不积极的,她们的学生代表拒绝了其他学校游行队伍要求华南女大学生参与游行的要求,还指责这次运动带有排外和反基督教的性质,而华南女大也是少数保持了其教会办学身份的学校,这场运动后,华南女大更换了校长,美籍校长卢爱德(Dr. Ida Belle Lewis)离开,而华籍的王世静成为校长,华南女大的教会学校身份一直维持到了1950年代。



Monday, March 15, 2010




Thursday, March 11, 2010



从本土复杂的语言系统上,就可以窥见福建文化高度多元的一斑。我知道相当多人(甚至包括不少福建人),都并不了解福建各种语言的相互亲缘关系以及地理分布状况,所以还是借助这一张福建语言地图和下面的语言分类树状图来解释这个问题吧。这张地图上标出了8种语言的分布,分别是东北部的闽东语(Eastern Min),东南部的闽南语(Southern Min),中部沿海的莆仙语(或称兴化语,Puxian),西北部的闽北语(Northern Min),中西部的闽中语(Central Min),西南部的客语(Hakka),以及西北部最北端的一小块吴语(Wu)和西北部西端的小块赣语区(Gan)。前面提到的福建9大本土语言中唯一没有在地图上标识出的是畲语,即福建畲族人的母语,分散于福建沿海的山区中,大概由于历史上畲族人在迁到现今聚居地之前曾与客家人混居的原因,福建闽东一带的畲语十分接近于客语。闽南语、闽东语、闽北语、莆仙语、闽中语共同构成闽语,而闽语也是福建使用人数最多的一个语支,客语次之。闽南语是福建使用人数最多的语言,它不仅分布在福建的南部,还分布于广东东部的潮汕一带(潮州话)和西南端的雷州半岛(雷州话),及海南的很多地区(海南话);闽南语同时也是占台湾人口约70%的闽南族群(河洛人)的母语,在台湾被通称为台语,台湾官方则称之为台湾闽南语;闽南语还是东南亚华人各族群母语中使用人口最多的一门,包括了福建话(Hokkien)、潮州话(Teochew)、海南话(Hainan)等分支。闽东语是闽语支中的第二大语言,包括了南片的福州话(福州语)和北片的福安话两大分支,且南北两支之间的交流起来非常困难。闽东语(这里特指的是福州话)也是比较国际化的一门语言,它随着历史上的福州移民潮而分布于马来西亚、印尼、文莱、新加坡、美国、日本、英国等许多国家。莆仙语在东南亚也有一些使用人口,但据说现在东南亚的兴化族群基本上很少说母语了。客语则是福建又一门广泛分布于东南亚和世界其他地区的语言。赣语和吴语则分别存在于福建与江西和浙江交接的小片地区。





Sunday, March 7, 2010

Fujian: a land of diversity

Interestingly, the first difficulty I ran into when I started this blog, a really annoying one, was to designate a Romanized name for my motherland. In Chinese characters, her name 福建 is a very unique one which could not be confused by Chinese, Japanese, Korean or ancient Vietnamese who share the similar hieroglyphic writing system of Chinese characters (漢字). But East Asian languages have different pronunciations of 福建, especially in 福建 itself where at least 9 different native languages are spoken, so the pronunciations become a big problem for a Romanized name. Although the official Romanized name for 福建 is Fujian in mainland China, I really don't like it, simply because it's from Mandarin Chinese (普通話/官話), the official language in China, which is not a native language in 福建 (Fujian) but a language spoken in North and Southwest China. However, since I can't use 9 different Romanized names for one land, I have to choose the most commonly used names, which are Fujian (in Mandarin), Fukien (in old Mandarin) and Hokkien (in Hokkien/Southern Min 閩南語). Sadly, I excluded the name "Hok-giong" in my mother tongue of Foochow/Eastern Min (福州語/閩東語), because this Romanized name is not well known.

To demonstrate such a complicated situation, I adapted and slightly revised a linguistic map of Fujian from Wikipedia. The 8 languages on this map are all in the Chinese language family, and they can be categorized into 4 groups: Min (including Southern Min, Eastern Min, Northern Min, Central Min and Puxian), Hakka, Gan and Wu. Min (閩語) is the largest language group in Fujian by both population and area, and has the greater dialectal diversity than any other division of Chinese. And Hakka is the second largest. The Min language group includes Southern Min (閩南語), Eastern Min (閩東語), Northern Min (閩北語), Central Min (閩中語) and Puxian (莆仙語). Southern Min (閩南語), commonly known as Hokkien (福建話) in Southeast Asia, is the largest language in Fujian and a very international one. In mainland China, it is spoken in Southern Fujian, Eastern and Southwestern Guangdong (廣東) and Hainan (海南). It is also spoken by a majority of people in Taiwan (台灣), where it is officially named Taiwanese Hokkien (台灣閩南語) and commonly known as Taiwanese (台語). In Southeast Asia, it is the largest language among the ethnic Chinese there, spoken in the Phillipines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Thailand, etc. The total speaker of Southern Min worldwide is close to 50,000,000. Eastern Min (閩東語), the second largest language in Fujian, has two major dialects: Foochow (福州話) and Fu'an (福安話), who are hardly mutually intelligible. And Foochow is also spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, US, Japan, UK, etc by oversea ethnic Foochowese. Northern Min (閩北語) is spoken mainly in today's Nanping region. Puxian (莆仙語), AKA Hinghua (Hsinghua, 興化語), is spoken in the eastern coast of Fujian. Central Min (閩中語) is the smallest of the five Min languages, spoken only by hundreds of thousands in Central Fujian. The Hakka language (客語) is spoken by the Hakka people (客家人), who immigrated to Fujian later than the majority ethnic Min, occupy the mountainous areas in Western Fujian and the adjacent provinces of Guangdong (廣東) and Jiangxi (江西). The Hakka also have a significant population in Southeast Asia. Gan (贛語) and Wu (吳語), the major native language in Jiangxi and Zhejiang (浙江) respetively, distributed on the border between Fujian and the two provinces mentioned above. Of the 9 major native languages spoken in Fujian, the only one off the map, which is also the only none Han-Chinese language, is the She language (畬語) spoken by the She people (畬族人) scattered in the mountainous areas on the east coast of Fujian. But the modern She language in Fujian is similar to Hakka, possibly because the She lived side by side with the Hakka in history before they migrated to their present locations.

This linguistic diversity comes from the immigration history and the geographic isolation of Fujian. Waves of immigrants from central China at different eras in history brought the ancient Chinese language of different ages to Fujian, and probably the intermarriage between these ancient Chinese immigrants and a few native Minyue people of Fujian gave birth to the Min language group. The isolated regions in Fujian created by the mountainous terrains helped preserve the linguistic diversity. The differences in language resulted in the formation of different ethnic groups, and each ethnic group fostered its own unique culture.

Ethnic culture is too big a topic to deal with, so I narrow down this topic to architecture and opera, two objects that are visually and aurally vivid.

Like the languages, the traditional architecture styles in Fujian are distinct from region to region. The boundaries between different architecture styles usually coincide with the corresponding linguistic boundaries. So it is easy to distinguish Eastern Min architecture from Southern Min architecture or Northern Min architecture. The Southern Min architecture is distinguished by the red bricked walls, symmetric layouts with central atria and highly decorated roof ridge, and many of them can be huge, with areas of over ten thousand of square meters (over 2 acres). The most famous Southern Min architectures include the Cai's Mansion in Nan'an, Fujian (福建南安蔡氏古民居) and the Lim's Mansion in Taichung, Taiwan (臺中霧峰林宅). Southern Min migrants brought their architecture to Taiwan, but one question still puzzles me: why does Southern Min architecture only reach as far as Taiwan and I didn't see many of them in Southeast Asia? I really don't know.
Found in the Eastern-Min-speaking regions of Fuzhou (福州) and Fu'an (福安), the Eastern Min architecture is marked by the white or grey walls, saddle-shaped gables and gates with water drip eaves (雨披) and pai-du (牌堵). Eastern Min architectures can be huge, too, in fact, the largest single traditional mansion in China is said to be Hong-lin-cuo (宏琳厝), an Eastern Min architecture in Minqing, Fujian (福建閩清) with an area of 17,000 square meters (4.2 acres); and the largest living traditional urban building complex in the metropolitan areas in China is the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys (三坊七巷) at the heart of Fuzhou City, which consists of Eastern Min buildings. Northern Min architecture in Northwestern Fujian is famous for its brick carving, particular on the front gates and walls. The themes of the carvings are mostly plants and animals. With its red walls, the Puxian style architecture is somewhat similar to Southern Min, but it usually has overhanging gable roofs (懸山頂) rather than the flush gable roofs (硬山頂) in Southern Min architecture. Central Min architecture is a style mixed with many styles (Hakka, Eastern Min, Southern Min, etc). There are also architectures shared by different ethnic groups in Fujian, like the world-renowned Tulou (土樓), which can be found in southern and southwestern Fujian and is shared by both Hakka and Southern Min people. The shape of Tulou is a circular configuration surrounding a central shrine, inhabited by some clan groups. Fujian Tulou has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.

There are 34 different kinds of operas in Fujian, including both existing and extinct ones. Almost each region or ethnic group has their own unique operas, for example, the Foochow people have Min Opera (閩劇), the Hinghua people have Puxian Opera (莆仙戲), the Southern Min have Gaojia Opera (高甲戲), Xiang Opera (known as Koa-á-hì or Taiwanese Opera in Taiwan, 薌劇/歌仔戲) and Liyuan Opera (梨園戲), the Hakka have Hakka Han Opera (閩西漢劇) and the Northern Min have Youchun Opera (游春戲). Among these 34 operas, the most influential five are Min Opera, Puxian Opera, Liyuan Opera, Xiang Opera and Gaojia Opera. Min Opera is rooted in Fuzhou and has influence in all over the Eastern Min speaking regions and even in some Southeast Asian Foochow communities. Min Opera is performed in standard Foochow language. Puxian Opera is said to have more than 700 years of history, but due to the relatively small Puxian-speaking population, it is restricted in Putian, Xianyou and part of Hui'an. Thanks to the large Southern-Min-speaking population, Gaojia Opera, Liyuan Opera and Xiang Opera are thriving in Fujian, Taiwan and many Southeast Asian countries, and they are all performed in Southern Min language.

Although Fujian has the highest linguistic and cultural diversity of all the Han-Chinese-dominant provinces in China, most people remain, unfortunately, unaware of this. More than once I heard people asking me if Hakka is the other name of Southern Min, or if the Foochowese speak Southern Min. Yes, many Chinese, even some Fujianese (not to mention the foreigners) fail to recognize the different ethnic groups in Fujian. I believe, once they see the uniqueness of the different ethnic cultures of Fujian, they'll be surprised. That's why I wrote this article.

All pictures are from the internet:)

Saturday, March 6, 2010



———— 惊魂未定,提笔牢骚

Friday, February 26, 2010

羅馬天主教福州教區歷任主教 Past Ordinaries of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou

盡管生在天主教影響頗濃的羅源城,盡管家庭中有不少成員都是教徒,但當我到了大學、真正想要了解福州本土的天主教時,卻發現歷史資料是如此稀缺。也難怪,自1624年艾儒略來榕傳播天主教起,超過一半的時間中天主教都因禁教被迫在地下活動,以致1840年代福州開埠后,美國來榕的新教傳教士盧公明(Justus Doolittle)發現這里的天主教組織竟然蒙著如此神秘的面紗,仿佛與世隔絕。即使在開埠之后,天主教的仍然不夠開放,19世紀以來,基督新教在福州留下了豐富的文化遺產和文獻記錄,豐富得讓我都要被感動,但與我最近的天主教,卻在歷史的迷霧中離我如此遙遠,我甚至不知曉地方志上提及的重要神職人員的原名究竟為何,來自何方。當然,這里面涉及到許多福州天主教歷史的東西,我以後再寫。

去年,我在搜索關于18世紀在福州殉教的白多禄的文獻時,偶然撞上了brender.eu這個德文網站(Katholische Bischofe in China),里面記錄了中華地區各教區載于歷史的歷任教長信息,終于為我理順了福州主教的年代表。我現把這些人物的信息按歷史年代排序,呈現在這里。可惜的是,網站上沒有直接列出這些人物屬于哪個修會,我只能從其他渠道獲得信息并補充進來。福州教區最早是於1680年由天主教科欽代牧區分設的天主教福建代牧區,到了1883年福建代牧區南北分治後,福州成為福建北境代牧區主教堂所在地(福州澳尾巷天主堂),1923年以後,福建北境代牧區又進一步分片,福州為福州代牧區之所在,1946年升格為福州總教區,本文所列的主教即歷史上的福建代牧區、福建北境代牧區、福州代牧區和福州總教區的歷任主教。由于我本人天主教知識的匱乏,加之原網站上的文字都是以拉丁文記錄的,因而若在宗教名詞、包括神職名稱的翻譯上有錯誤的話,希望能夠得到原諒和指正。

Established for 320 years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Foochow (Fuzhou) remains somewhat mysterious to me, even though I was born in the catholic influenced town of Luoyuan(Lo-nguong) in northern Fuzhou and many of my family members are catholic. This is partly due to the fact that Roman catholic church in Fuzhou was banned many times in history and remained underground for over half of the time since its establishment in 1680. Even after the relegalization of catholicism in 1842, the catholic church of Foochow was still much less open and active, compared to their newly arrived protestant counterparts in the 19th century. The other reason is that the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Foochow had been dominated by Spanish Dominican missionaries for a long time, thus most documents on Foochow catholicism were written in Spanish - a language I'm incapable of reading. Therefore, while the British and American protestant missionaries left rich archives on protestant churches in Fuzhou, as well as precious documents and photographs on almost every aspect of this land, there is only very limited information from their catholic collegues, at least as it appears to me. Since the 1950's, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou has seen the eviction of foreign missionaries, the Three-Self Patriotic Movement,the Cultural Revolution and the breaking up of the catholic church into an underground church (faithful to the Holy See) and a patriotic church (controlled by the government), which makes the history of Fuzhou catholicism unclear to most Foochowese people, even to most catholic in Fuzhou.

My effort here is to present Foochow catholic ordinaries in the past 300 years with brief introductions about each bishop (archbishop). The Archdiocese of Fuzhou was Apostolic Vicariate of Fujian (Fo-kien) before 1883, and Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Fo-kien between 1883 and 1923, and Apostolic Vicariate of Fuzhou between 1923 and 1946. I hope this article can give Foochowese catholic and those who are interested in Roman catholicism in Fuzhou a general idea of the history of Foochow catholicism.

第1任主教(1680-1684):方濟各·巴廬,漢名又叫陸方濟(François Pallu, 1626.8.31-1683.10.29),法國人,1626年8月31日生于法國圖爾,屬于巴黎外方傳教會,他同時也是巴黎外方傳教會的創始人之一。陸方濟於1658年起在越南東京(北圻)任天主教神職人員,1680年4月15日成為福建教區(福州)主教,1684年10月29日逝世於福安穆陽。
The 1st bishop (1680-1684): François Pallu (Chinese name:陸方濟, 1626.8.31-1683.10.29), a French missionary of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. He died in Moyang, Fu'an, Fujian (I believe the statement in English wikipedia that Pallu died in Muyang, Jiangsu 江苏沭阳 is wrong).

第2任主教(1684-1687):伊大任(Bernardino Della Chiesa,1644.5.8-1721.12.21),義大利人,1644年5月8日生于義大利威尼斯,屬于方濟會,1680年-1684年擔任福建教區(福州)助理主教,1684年10月29日被選為福建教區(福州)主教,1687年離任,1690年又到北京郊區任職,1721年逝於山東臨清。
The 2nd bishop (1684-1687): Bernardino Della Chiesa (伊大任, 1644.5.8-1721.12.21), an Italian Franciscan who later left for Beijing.

第3任主教(1687):萬濟國(又名華羅、圭勞,Francisco Varo,1627.10.21-1687),西班牙人,1627年10月21日生於西班牙塞維利亞,1687年1月25日成為福建教區主教,同年被明朝逮捕并處死。萬濟國主教應是福建教區第一任道明會(多明我會)主教。
The 3rd bishop (1687): Francisco Varo (萬濟國, 1627.10.21-1687), a Spanish Dominican who was executed by the Chinese Ming government during the ban of catholicism.

第4任主教(1687-1708):顏璫(Charles Maigrot,1652-1730.2.28),法國人,1652年生于法國巴黎,屬于巴黎外方傳教會。他於1687年2月5日成為福建教區主教,1708年離任,1730年2月28日逝世。顏璫主教正是“禮儀之爭”這一重要歷史事件的核心人物之一,他於1693年在福州長樂發布禁止中国天主教徒祭祖祭孔的禁令,羅馬教廷隨后於1704年正式禁止教徒祭祖祭孔,而教廷也將福建教區的管理權交給了道明會,迫使耶穌會離開福建,福建教區從此進入了道明會和西班牙籍神職人員壟斷的時代。有的資料記載這一移交事件發生于1707年。顏璫主教會說閩語(這里的閩語也許僅限于閩東語),不會說官話(北方漢語)。
The 4th bishop (1687-1708): Charles Maigrot (顏璫, 1652-1730.2.28), a French missionary of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. An important figure in the Chinese Rites controversy, Maigrot strongly advocated the banning of Chinese Rites among Chinese catholic, which led to the breakup of China – Holy See relation and the following banning of Christianity and persecution of Chinese Christians. He could speak Min language (probably Eastern Min), but not Mandarin.

第5任主教(1718-1732):馬熹諾(馬晉·溫達羅,Magino Ventallol,1647.3.26-1732.1.3),西班牙人,1647年3月26日生于西班牙巴塞羅那,屬于道明會,1718年12月3日成為福建教區主教,有人稱他是福建教區首任道明會主教,但從史料上來看,萬濟國(圭勞)主教才應是第一位。1732年,馬熹諾主教逝世於廣東。
The 5th bishop (1718-1732): Magino Ventallol (馬熹諾, 1647.3.26-1732.1.3), a Spanish Dominican who later died in Canton (Guangdong).

第6任主教(1732-1747):聖白多祿(San Pedro Sanz y Jordá,1680.9.2-1747.5.26),西班牙人,1680年9月2日生于西班牙塔拉戈納的亞斯谷,屬于道明會,他於1728年成為福建教區助理主教,1732年1月3日成為福建教區主教,後來在禁教風波中被捕,1747年5月26日在福州被清朝處決。2000年,他被若望保羅二世教宗封聖。白多祿在閩東一帶是個傳奇式的人物,在當地天主教徒當中享有盛譽,至今仍有許多關于白主教為善的軼事和聖跡流傳。
The 6th bishop (1732-1747): San Pedro Sanz y Jordá (聖白多祿, 1680.9.2-1747.5.26), a Spanish Dominican. He is a martyr, and may be the most famous bishop in Eastern Fujian (Fuzhou and Ningde), who was executed in Fuzhou by the Chinese Qing government for his underground missionary work. He is still a popular figure among local catholic.

第7任主教(1747-1748):聖德方濟(Francisco Serrano Frías,1695.12.4-1748.9.28),西班牙人,1695年12月4日生于西班牙加的斯,屬于道明會,1745年9月22日起擔任福建教區助理主教,1747年5月26日白多祿被殺害後擔任主教,他也沒能逃過禁教風波,於1748年9月28日被清政府處決於福州。他於1893年被封聖。
The 7th bishop (1747-1748): Francisco Serrano Frías (聖德方濟, 1695.12.4-1748.9.28), a Spanish Dominican martyr who was also persecuted and executed by the Qing government.

第8任主教(1753-1778):黃方濟各(又名巴方濟,Francisco Pallas y Faro,1706.12.3-1778.3.6),西班牙人,1706年12月3日生于西班牙薩莫拉省的伯納門特(Benavente),屬于道明會,1753年6月11日被任命為福建教區主教,1778年逝世於溪前(Ke-sen,今溪填)。他曾寫過有關中國的文獻書籍。
The 8th bishop (1753-1778): Francisco Pallas y Faro (黃方濟各/巴方濟, 1706.12.3-1778.3.6), a Spanish Dominican who died in Ke-sen, Fu'an (福安溪前, today's 溪填).

第9任主教(1781-1812):高若瑟(Jose Calvo, 1739-1812.10.15),西班牙人,1739年生於西班牙巴倫西亞,屬于道明會,1781年2月16日被選為福建主教,1812年逝世於寧德附近的海島Ciu-suei, Tap-san.他在閩傳教長達42年之久。
The 9th bishop (1781-1812): Jose Calvo (高若瑟, 1739-1812.10.15), a Spanish Dominican who worked in Fujian for 42 years and died in Ciu-suei, Tap-san near Ningde.

第10任主教(1812-1841):羅羅各(又名嘉俾納,Roque José Carpegna Díaz,1760.8.18-1845.12.30),西班牙人,1769年生於西班牙卡塔赫納,屬于道明會,1801年起任福建教區助理主教,1812年10月15日起任主教,1845年逝世於頂頭(Tingtao)。據說他精通中國文化。和他同時期的助理主教(1818-1829)是西班牙巴塞羅那人林查拉(Tomás Sála,1776.12.26-1829.10.1),他在溪引創立了十字架修道院并教授神學,還寫過倫理神學的書籍,他於1829年逝世於溪前(Ke-sen,即今福安溪填)。
The 10th bishop (1812-1841): Roque José Carpegna Díaz (羅羅各, 1760.8.18-1845.12.30), a Spanish Dominican who was expertise in Chinese culture and died in Tingtao, Fu'an (福安頂頭). Tomás Sála (林查拉), also a Spanish Dominican, was the coadjutor during that time.

第11任主教(1841-1883):高彌額(亦名高德隆,Miguel Calderon,1803.12.4-1883.2.14),西班牙人,1803年生於西班牙奧維耶多,屬于道明會,1831年接替逝世的林查拉擔任福建教區助理主教,1841年則接任主教職務,1883年逝世於Le-in(懷疑是溪引Ke-in被誤作Le-in)。高彌額在主教任內經歷了福建天主教活動重新合法化(公開化)的歷史事件,他曾度過1836-1839年的教難,之後沒過幾年,福州就開埠了,於是他又著手推動教區內的現代化。高彌額主教在教會內具有相當的威信。他同時期的助理主教有1842-44年間道明會的西班牙聖菲略‧撒賽拉(San Feliú de Saserra)人多馬斯‧巴敵亞(Thomas Badia),1848-65年間的西班牙哈恩(Jaen)人Justo Alfonso Aguilar,1866-67年間的西班牙赫羅納(Gerona)人Vincent Ferrér Carreras,以及1868-83年間著名的道明會義大利籍神父李宏治。
The 11th bishop (1841-1883): Miguel Calderon (高彌額, 1803.12.4-1883.2.14), a Spanish Dominican. He experienced the relegalization of Roman Catholicism in Fuzhou after the First Opium War. The coadjutors at his time were Thomas Badia (1842-1844, Spanish Dominican), Justo Alfonso Aguilar (1848-1865, Spanish Dominican), Vincent Ferrér Carreras (1866-1867, Spanish Dominican) and an Italian Dominican Tommaso Maria Gentili (1868-1883).

李宏治(又名李玛素、李玛笃、陳砥礪,Tommaso Maria Gentili,1828.2.14-1888.8.30)1828年出生於義大利阿布魯佐的基耶蒂,在福州開埠後來閩,在福州倉山菖蒲墩向處于福州社會最底層的疍民傳教,由于疍民終身居船,李宏治也隨他們泛舟傳教,福州疍民天主教徒人數迅速增長。他的義大利文名Gentili和福州語中的“宏志李”的發音Hengdeli頗接近,這大概是他漢文名的來由吧。李宏治在福州留下的最著名的遺產應該就是泛船浦天主堂了,這座也許是福州最著名的教堂是1868年由李宏治主教修建的,現在則成為了天主教福州教區的總堂及省級文物保護單位。據1998年版《福州市志》記載,1883年,天主教福建代牧區實行南北分立,天主教福建北境代牧區駐福州,李宏治成為首任主教,但由于教會由西班牙籍神職人員把持,作為義大利人的李宏治最終在任職僅幾個月後便遭排擠、辭職離開。但www.brender.eu和www.gcatholic.com兩個網站上都沒有李宏治任主教的記錄,所以我還是沒有把他算在主教名單之中。
Tommaso Maria Gentili (李宏治, or李玛素, 李玛笃,陳砥礪), an Italian Dominican. He was another famous catholic missionary in Fuzhou, who converted many Foochow Tanka people (福州疍民), who were discriminated as the low caste in traditional Fuzhou society, to Christianity. He also built the famous Cathedral of St. Dominic in Fanchuanpu (泛船浦天主堂) in 1868, which is now the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou. A chorograph of Fuzhou says that Gentili became the first bishop when the new Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Fo-kien was established in Fuzhou. But as an Italian in this Spanish dominated church, he was later isolated and expelled by his Spanish collegues.

第12任主教(1884-1911):蘇瑪素(Salvador Masót y Gómez,1845.11.18-1911.3.17),西班牙人,1845年生於萊里達的阿爾菲斯(Alfés),屬于道明會,他於1884年6月20日成為福建教區主教,任內主持修建了福州定遠橋天主堂(今天主教西門教堂)、澳尾巷聖若瑟大修院。他於1911年逝世於西班牙巴倫西亞。
The 12th bishop (1884-1911): Salvador Masót y Gómez (蘇瑪素, 1845.11.18-1911.3.17), a Spanish Dominican.

第13任主教(1911-1941):宋金鈴(Francisco Aguirre,1863.2.22-1941.6.13),西班牙人,1863年生於西班牙吉普斯格瓦省的艾奎巴爾(Elgoibar,Guipúzcoa),屬于道明會,他於1911年成為福州教區主教,他在任內推動了天主教辦醫院和育嬰堂等慈善機構的發展,這一時期,德國籍和美國籍的天主教道明會修士也加入其中。關于宋金鈴我還要提到的是,羅源城關的岐陽天主教堂在1931年被臺風毀壞,正是宋金鈴在1932年重修了該教堂,使之成為羅源第一座鋼筋混凝土結構的建筑。1941年,宋金鈴主教在福州去世。
The 13th bishop (1911-1941): Francisco Aguirre (宋金鈴, 1863.2.22-1941.6.13), a Spanish Dominican. He founded charities in Fuzhou. In 1932, he also helped rebuild the Qiyang Catholic Church in my hometown Luoyuan into the first concrete structure in town, after the former church was destroyed in a typhoon in 1931. He died in Fuzhou in 1941.

第14任主教(1946-1980):趙炳文(Theodore Labrador Fraile,1888.11.11-1980.5.6),西班牙人,1888年生於西班牙萊昂省的Buenavista,屬于道明會。趙炳文主教幾乎可以說是羅馬天主教福州教區最後一任正式主教。1932年,他還於寧德三都澳創立了中華道明修女會。1946年,羅馬教廷在中國建立聖統制,福州從宗座代牧區升為總教區,趙炳文成為總主教。僅僅3年之後,中國大陸易手,1951年,趙炳文在被監禁之後,最終被共產主義中國政府驅逐回西班牙,而此前他召開會議指定鄭長誠作為福州教區代理主教。1973年,趙炳文主教被修女們接到台灣,最終於1980年病逝台灣。
The 14th bishop and the 1st archbishop of Fuzhou (1946-1980): Theodore Labrador Fraile (趙炳文, 1888.11.11-1980.5.6), a Spanish Dominican. Because he was evicted by the Chinese Communist government in 1951, he was actually the last archbishop of Fuzhou directly appointed by the Holy See. He was the founder of Chinese Dominican Sisters in Sanduao, Ningde (寧德三都澳) in 1932. He later left Spain for Taiwan in 1973 and died there in 1980.