Foochow,1900

Friday, February 26, 2010

羅馬天主教福州教區歷任主教 Past Ordinaries of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou

盡管生在天主教影響頗濃的羅源城,盡管家庭中有不少成員都是教徒,但當我到了大學、真正想要了解福州本土的天主教時,卻發現歷史資料是如此稀缺。也難怪,自1624年艾儒略來榕傳播天主教起,超過一半的時間中天主教都因禁教被迫在地下活動,以致1840年代福州開埠后,美國來榕的新教傳教士盧公明(Justus Doolittle)發現這里的天主教組織竟然蒙著如此神秘的面紗,仿佛與世隔絕。即使在開埠之后,天主教的仍然不夠開放,19世紀以來,基督新教在福州留下了豐富的文化遺產和文獻記錄,豐富得讓我都要被感動,但與我最近的天主教,卻在歷史的迷霧中離我如此遙遠,我甚至不知曉地方志上提及的重要神職人員的原名究竟為何,來自何方。當然,這里面涉及到許多福州天主教歷史的東西,我以後再寫。

去年,我在搜索關于18世紀在福州殉教的白多禄的文獻時,偶然撞上了brender.eu這個德文網站(Katholische Bischofe in China),里面記錄了中華地區各教區載于歷史的歷任教長信息,終于為我理順了福州主教的年代表。我現把這些人物的信息按歷史年代排序,呈現在這里。可惜的是,網站上沒有直接列出這些人物屬于哪個修會,我只能從其他渠道獲得信息并補充進來。福州教區最早是於1680年由天主教科欽代牧區分設的天主教福建代牧區,到了1883年福建代牧區南北分治後,福州成為福建北境代牧區主教堂所在地(福州澳尾巷天主堂),1923年以後,福建北境代牧區又進一步分片,福州為福州代牧區之所在,1946年升格為福州總教區,本文所列的主教即歷史上的福建代牧區、福建北境代牧區、福州代牧區和福州總教區的歷任主教。由于我本人天主教知識的匱乏,加之原網站上的文字都是以拉丁文記錄的,因而若在宗教名詞、包括神職名稱的翻譯上有錯誤的話,希望能夠得到原諒和指正。

Established for 320 years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Foochow (Fuzhou) remains somewhat mysterious to me, even though I was born in the catholic influenced town of Luoyuan(Lo-nguong) in northern Fuzhou and many of my family members are catholic. This is partly due to the fact that Roman catholic church in Fuzhou was banned many times in history and remained underground for over half of the time since its establishment in 1680. Even after the relegalization of catholicism in 1842, the catholic church of Foochow was still much less open and active, compared to their newly arrived protestant counterparts in the 19th century. The other reason is that the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Foochow had been dominated by Spanish Dominican missionaries for a long time, thus most documents on Foochow catholicism were written in Spanish - a language I'm incapable of reading. Therefore, while the British and American protestant missionaries left rich archives on protestant churches in Fuzhou, as well as precious documents and photographs on almost every aspect of this land, there is only very limited information from their catholic collegues, at least as it appears to me. Since the 1950's, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou has seen the eviction of foreign missionaries, the Three-Self Patriotic Movement,the Cultural Revolution and the breaking up of the catholic church into an underground church (faithful to the Holy See) and a patriotic church (controlled by the government), which makes the history of Fuzhou catholicism unclear to most Foochowese people, even to most catholic in Fuzhou.

My effort here is to present Foochow catholic ordinaries in the past 300 years with brief introductions about each bishop (archbishop). The Archdiocese of Fuzhou was Apostolic Vicariate of Fujian (Fo-kien) before 1883, and Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Fo-kien between 1883 and 1923, and Apostolic Vicariate of Fuzhou between 1923 and 1946. I hope this article can give Foochowese catholic and those who are interested in Roman catholicism in Fuzhou a general idea of the history of Foochow catholicism.

第1任主教(1680-1684):方濟各·巴廬,漢名又叫陸方濟(François Pallu, 1626.8.31-1683.10.29),法國人,1626年8月31日生于法國圖爾,屬于巴黎外方傳教會,他同時也是巴黎外方傳教會的創始人之一。陸方濟於1658年起在越南東京(北圻)任天主教神職人員,1680年4月15日成為福建教區(福州)主教,1684年10月29日逝世於福安穆陽。
The 1st bishop (1680-1684): François Pallu (Chinese name:陸方濟, 1626.8.31-1683.10.29), a French missionary of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. He died in Moyang, Fu'an, Fujian (I believe the statement in English wikipedia that Pallu died in Muyang, Jiangsu 江苏沭阳 is wrong).

第2任主教(1684-1687):伊大任(Bernardino Della Chiesa,1644.5.8-1721.12.21),義大利人,1644年5月8日生于義大利威尼斯,屬于方濟會,1680年-1684年擔任福建教區(福州)助理主教,1684年10月29日被選為福建教區(福州)主教,1687年離任,1690年又到北京郊區任職,1721年逝於山東臨清。
The 2nd bishop (1684-1687): Bernardino Della Chiesa (伊大任, 1644.5.8-1721.12.21), an Italian Franciscan who later left for Beijing.

第3任主教(1687):萬濟國(又名華羅、圭勞,Francisco Varo,1627.10.21-1687),西班牙人,1627年10月21日生於西班牙塞維利亞,1687年1月25日成為福建教區主教,同年被明朝逮捕并處死。萬濟國主教應是福建教區第一任道明會(多明我會)主教。
The 3rd bishop (1687): Francisco Varo (萬濟國, 1627.10.21-1687), a Spanish Dominican who was executed by the Chinese Ming government during the ban of catholicism.

第4任主教(1687-1708):顏璫(Charles Maigrot,1652-1730.2.28),法國人,1652年生于法國巴黎,屬于巴黎外方傳教會。他於1687年2月5日成為福建教區主教,1708年離任,1730年2月28日逝世。顏璫主教正是“禮儀之爭”這一重要歷史事件的核心人物之一,他於1693年在福州長樂發布禁止中国天主教徒祭祖祭孔的禁令,羅馬教廷隨后於1704年正式禁止教徒祭祖祭孔,而教廷也將福建教區的管理權交給了道明會,迫使耶穌會離開福建,福建教區從此進入了道明會和西班牙籍神職人員壟斷的時代。有的資料記載這一移交事件發生于1707年。顏璫主教會說閩語(這里的閩語也許僅限于閩東語),不會說官話(北方漢語)。
The 4th bishop (1687-1708): Charles Maigrot (顏璫, 1652-1730.2.28), a French missionary of the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris. An important figure in the Chinese Rites controversy, Maigrot strongly advocated the banning of Chinese Rites among Chinese catholic, which led to the breakup of China – Holy See relation and the following banning of Christianity and persecution of Chinese Christians. He could speak Min language (probably Eastern Min), but not Mandarin.

第5任主教(1718-1732):馬熹諾(馬晉·溫達羅,Magino Ventallol,1647.3.26-1732.1.3),西班牙人,1647年3月26日生于西班牙巴塞羅那,屬于道明會,1718年12月3日成為福建教區主教,有人稱他是福建教區首任道明會主教,但從史料上來看,萬濟國(圭勞)主教才應是第一位。1732年,馬熹諾主教逝世於廣東。
The 5th bishop (1718-1732): Magino Ventallol (馬熹諾, 1647.3.26-1732.1.3), a Spanish Dominican who later died in Canton (Guangdong).

第6任主教(1732-1747):聖白多祿(San Pedro Sanz y Jordá,1680.9.2-1747.5.26),西班牙人,1680年9月2日生于西班牙塔拉戈納的亞斯谷,屬于道明會,他於1728年成為福建教區助理主教,1732年1月3日成為福建教區主教,後來在禁教風波中被捕,1747年5月26日在福州被清朝處決。2000年,他被若望保羅二世教宗封聖。白多祿在閩東一帶是個傳奇式的人物,在當地天主教徒當中享有盛譽,至今仍有許多關于白主教為善的軼事和聖跡流傳。
The 6th bishop (1732-1747): San Pedro Sanz y Jordá (聖白多祿, 1680.9.2-1747.5.26), a Spanish Dominican. He is a martyr, and may be the most famous bishop in Eastern Fujian (Fuzhou and Ningde), who was executed in Fuzhou by the Chinese Qing government for his underground missionary work. He is still a popular figure among local catholic.

第7任主教(1747-1748):聖德方濟(Francisco Serrano Frías,1695.12.4-1748.9.28),西班牙人,1695年12月4日生于西班牙加的斯,屬于道明會,1745年9月22日起擔任福建教區助理主教,1747年5月26日白多祿被殺害後擔任主教,他也沒能逃過禁教風波,於1748年9月28日被清政府處決於福州。他於1893年被封聖。
The 7th bishop (1747-1748): Francisco Serrano Frías (聖德方濟, 1695.12.4-1748.9.28), a Spanish Dominican martyr who was also persecuted and executed by the Qing government.

第8任主教(1753-1778):黃方濟各(又名巴方濟,Francisco Pallas y Faro,1706.12.3-1778.3.6),西班牙人,1706年12月3日生于西班牙薩莫拉省的伯納門特(Benavente),屬于道明會,1753年6月11日被任命為福建教區主教,1778年逝世於溪前(Ke-sen,今溪填)。他曾寫過有關中國的文獻書籍。
The 8th bishop (1753-1778): Francisco Pallas y Faro (黃方濟各/巴方濟, 1706.12.3-1778.3.6), a Spanish Dominican who died in Ke-sen, Fu'an (福安溪前, today's 溪填).

第9任主教(1781-1812):高若瑟(Jose Calvo, 1739-1812.10.15),西班牙人,1739年生於西班牙巴倫西亞,屬于道明會,1781年2月16日被選為福建主教,1812年逝世於寧德附近的海島Ciu-suei, Tap-san.他在閩傳教長達42年之久。
The 9th bishop (1781-1812): Jose Calvo (高若瑟, 1739-1812.10.15), a Spanish Dominican who worked in Fujian for 42 years and died in Ciu-suei, Tap-san near Ningde.

第10任主教(1812-1841):羅羅各(又名嘉俾納,Roque José Carpegna Díaz,1760.8.18-1845.12.30),西班牙人,1769年生於西班牙卡塔赫納,屬于道明會,1801年起任福建教區助理主教,1812年10月15日起任主教,1845年逝世於頂頭(Tingtao)。據說他精通中國文化。和他同時期的助理主教(1818-1829)是西班牙巴塞羅那人林查拉(Tomás Sála,1776.12.26-1829.10.1),他在溪引創立了十字架修道院并教授神學,還寫過倫理神學的書籍,他於1829年逝世於溪前(Ke-sen,即今福安溪填)。
The 10th bishop (1812-1841): Roque José Carpegna Díaz (羅羅各, 1760.8.18-1845.12.30), a Spanish Dominican who was expertise in Chinese culture and died in Tingtao, Fu'an (福安頂頭). Tomás Sála (林查拉), also a Spanish Dominican, was the coadjutor during that time.

第11任主教(1841-1883):高彌額(亦名高德隆,Miguel Calderon,1803.12.4-1883.2.14),西班牙人,1803年生於西班牙奧維耶多,屬于道明會,1831年接替逝世的林查拉擔任福建教區助理主教,1841年則接任主教職務,1883年逝世於Le-in(懷疑是溪引Ke-in被誤作Le-in)。高彌額在主教任內經歷了福建天主教活動重新合法化(公開化)的歷史事件,他曾度過1836-1839年的教難,之後沒過幾年,福州就開埠了,於是他又著手推動教區內的現代化。高彌額主教在教會內具有相當的威信。他同時期的助理主教有1842-44年間道明會的西班牙聖菲略‧撒賽拉(San Feliú de Saserra)人多馬斯‧巴敵亞(Thomas Badia),1848-65年間的西班牙哈恩(Jaen)人Justo Alfonso Aguilar,1866-67年間的西班牙赫羅納(Gerona)人Vincent Ferrér Carreras,以及1868-83年間著名的道明會義大利籍神父李宏治。
The 11th bishop (1841-1883): Miguel Calderon (高彌額, 1803.12.4-1883.2.14), a Spanish Dominican. He experienced the relegalization of Roman Catholicism in Fuzhou after the First Opium War. The coadjutors at his time were Thomas Badia (1842-1844, Spanish Dominican), Justo Alfonso Aguilar (1848-1865, Spanish Dominican), Vincent Ferrér Carreras (1866-1867, Spanish Dominican) and an Italian Dominican Tommaso Maria Gentili (1868-1883).

李宏治(又名李玛素、李玛笃、陳砥礪,Tommaso Maria Gentili,1828.2.14-1888.8.30)1828年出生於義大利阿布魯佐的基耶蒂,在福州開埠後來閩,在福州倉山菖蒲墩向處于福州社會最底層的疍民傳教,由于疍民終身居船,李宏治也隨他們泛舟傳教,福州疍民天主教徒人數迅速增長。他的義大利文名Gentili和福州語中的“宏志李”的發音Hengdeli頗接近,這大概是他漢文名的來由吧。李宏治在福州留下的最著名的遺產應該就是泛船浦天主堂了,這座也許是福州最著名的教堂是1868年由李宏治主教修建的,現在則成為了天主教福州教區的總堂及省級文物保護單位。據1998年版《福州市志》記載,1883年,天主教福建代牧區實行南北分立,天主教福建北境代牧區駐福州,李宏治成為首任主教,但由于教會由西班牙籍神職人員把持,作為義大利人的李宏治最終在任職僅幾個月後便遭排擠、辭職離開。但www.brender.eu和www.gcatholic.com兩個網站上都沒有李宏治任主教的記錄,所以我還是沒有把他算在主教名單之中。
Tommaso Maria Gentili (李宏治, or李玛素, 李玛笃,陳砥礪), an Italian Dominican. He was another famous catholic missionary in Fuzhou, who converted many Foochow Tanka people (福州疍民), who were discriminated as the low caste in traditional Fuzhou society, to Christianity. He also built the famous Cathedral of St. Dominic in Fanchuanpu (泛船浦天主堂) in 1868, which is now the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fuzhou. A chorograph of Fuzhou says that Gentili became the first bishop when the new Apostolic Vicariate of Northern Fo-kien was established in Fuzhou. But as an Italian in this Spanish dominated church, he was later isolated and expelled by his Spanish collegues.

第12任主教(1884-1911):蘇瑪素(Salvador Masót y Gómez,1845.11.18-1911.3.17),西班牙人,1845年生於萊里達的阿爾菲斯(Alfés),屬于道明會,他於1884年6月20日成為福建教區主教,任內主持修建了福州定遠橋天主堂(今天主教西門教堂)、澳尾巷聖若瑟大修院。他於1911年逝世於西班牙巴倫西亞。
The 12th bishop (1884-1911): Salvador Masót y Gómez (蘇瑪素, 1845.11.18-1911.3.17), a Spanish Dominican.

第13任主教(1911-1941):宋金鈴(Francisco Aguirre,1863.2.22-1941.6.13),西班牙人,1863年生於西班牙吉普斯格瓦省的艾奎巴爾(Elgoibar,Guipúzcoa),屬于道明會,他於1911年成為福州教區主教,他在任內推動了天主教辦醫院和育嬰堂等慈善機構的發展,這一時期,德國籍和美國籍的天主教道明會修士也加入其中。關于宋金鈴我還要提到的是,羅源城關的岐陽天主教堂在1931年被臺風毀壞,正是宋金鈴在1932年重修了該教堂,使之成為羅源第一座鋼筋混凝土結構的建筑。1941年,宋金鈴主教在福州去世。
The 13th bishop (1911-1941): Francisco Aguirre (宋金鈴, 1863.2.22-1941.6.13), a Spanish Dominican. He founded charities in Fuzhou. In 1932, he also helped rebuild the Qiyang Catholic Church in my hometown Luoyuan into the first concrete structure in town, after the former church was destroyed in a typhoon in 1931. He died in Fuzhou in 1941.

第14任主教(1946-1980):趙炳文(Theodore Labrador Fraile,1888.11.11-1980.5.6),西班牙人,1888年生於西班牙萊昂省的Buenavista,屬于道明會。趙炳文主教幾乎可以說是羅馬天主教福州教區最後一任正式主教。1932年,他還於寧德三都澳創立了中華道明修女會。1946年,羅馬教廷在中國建立聖統制,福州從宗座代牧區升為總教區,趙炳文成為總主教。僅僅3年之後,中國大陸易手,1951年,趙炳文在被監禁之後,最終被共產主義中國政府驅逐回西班牙,而此前他召開會議指定鄭長誠作為福州教區代理主教。1973年,趙炳文主教被修女們接到台灣,最終於1980年病逝台灣。
The 14th bishop and the 1st archbishop of Fuzhou (1946-1980): Theodore Labrador Fraile (趙炳文, 1888.11.11-1980.5.6), a Spanish Dominican. Because he was evicted by the Chinese Communist government in 1951, he was actually the last archbishop of Fuzhou directly appointed by the Holy See. He was the founder of Chinese Dominican Sisters in Sanduao, Ningde (寧德三都澳) in 1932. He later left Spain for Taiwan in 1973 and died there in 1980.

7 comments:

GnuDoyng said...

如此丰富的史料,卢兄完全可以考虑发表在维基百科上。

Hung-Nguong said...

的确,本来也考虑过,只不过维基在格式规范上比较严格,我还是等些日子再做吧

mel said...

i am a dominican friar, though archival marterials are few in the mainland, the throve is in the archive of the dominican fathers in Manila now transferred to the Monastery of Santo Tomas in Avila (Spain). If you are interested to have the official biographies (in Spanish) of these prelates, i can post them to you in English.

Hung-Nguong said...

Hi Mel. It's so great to know you have such documents! It's like "finally I can disclose this misty history", even if I don't speak Spanish, I'll try to manage it. Please send them to my email lu.hungnguong@gmail.com if you can.

GnuDoyng said...

Wow, with so much material at your disposal you've got no excuse to deny my request for a Wikipedia entry.

Illvuan said...

I heard Fuzhou Tanka were discriminated by few manage to live on land during 18th century.
http://memim.com/fuzhou-tanka.html

How did this happen? Did the Catholic Church help them? If yes, which part of land did the Catholic Church settle those Fuzhou Tanka?

Illvuan said...
This comment has been removed by the author.

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